Frequently Asked Self Defense Product Questions

FAQs About Surveillance CamerasHow to Pick a Hidden CameraFAQs About Air TASERsFAQs About TASER C2FAQs About Stun devicesFAQs About Pepper SprayPepper Spray Formula CompositionOur Store Categories

About Surveillance Cameras

Here are questions and answers about the use and definition of many of the elements regarding surveillance cameras. These surveillance cameras are so inconspicuously disguised that they are referred to as Hidden Cameras.

Surveillance Vocabulary

dot AGC - Automatic Gain Control is an electronic system found in many types of devices. Its purpose is to control the gain of a system in order to maintain adequate performance over a range of input signal levels. Or An electronic circuit that tries to keep the video signal at a constant level (1volt peak-peak). Useful on cameras working at low light levels.

Keep an eye on what's important.

dot AI - Auto Iris is an electronic circuit that acts as an iris on CCD cameras by electronically shuttering the CCD sensor. Or An automatic method of varying the size of a lens opening in response to changes in scene illumination.

dot AWB - Auto White Balance is an electronic process used in video cameras to retain true colors. It is performed electronically on the basis of a white object in the picture.

dot CCD - Charged Coupled Device: It is analog technology. The CCD camera has a little bit higher resolution than CMOS. The camera also functions better in low light. A CCD camera drains a little bit more power than the CMOS cameras. It uses 12v instead of 9v. CMOS camera is smaller than a CCD camera and works longer with the 9v battery.

dot HAD CCD - Hole Accumulation Diode is a type of CCD sensor with a layer designed to accumulate holes (in the electronic sense), thus reducing the noise level.

dot S to N Ratio - Signal to Noise Ratio is simply the ratio of the signal power and noise power, expressed in decibels (dB). Or the measure sure of noise on a video signal. It is represented in Decibels as the level of the video signal compared to the level of noise present on that signal. The higher the signal to noise ratio the better.

dot BLC - Balance Light Control is a method to compensate for bright spots in a picture. It is also important to consider whether there are bright spots in the picture such as car headlights which can make identification of the vehicle registration or model impossible. This can also be a major problem where it is necessary to identify a person who is moving from bright daylight into artificial light. This could result in the subject becoming an unidentifiable silhouette. OSD - On Screen Display is a method of displaying set-up information or instructions on to a display monitor. Resolution - Resolution measures the cameras ability to reproduce an image. The higher the resolution, the better the picture quality.

dot LUX - LUX is the measurement of low light needed for the camera to view and record properly.

dot FPS - Frames Per Second is the number of still frames (pictures) that give the illusion of motion, which appear in a single second of time.30fps is considered "Real Time". So for Real Time viewing of your cameras, you need at least 30fps for each camera.

dot IR - Infrared, IR LEDS are used on Day/Night cameras which allow the camera to see in the dark.

dot Focal Length - the distance from the surface of a lens and its focal point.


Your Questions Answered

How do hidden cameras work?
dot A small board camera is built into an everyday item. The camera can be wired which means it is connected to the DVR or VCR using a cable. The camera can also be wireless, in this case the camera transmits a signal to a receiver that is connected to the DVR or VCR.
Can I get audio in my hidden camera?
dot No you cannot. According to United States federal laws, audio should not be used in a surreptitious manner. One example of surreptitious interception is audio in a hidden camera. This includes pinhole board cameras and all covert or hidden cameras; i.e., a clock radio. Audio in a hidden camera or board camera is only available to law enforcement agencies. Title 18, Section 2512.
What is the difference between a wired and a wireless camera?
dot Wired cameras have a video cable that runs from the camera to your recording or viewing device such as a DVR, VCR or monitor. Wireless cameras have a built-in transmitter that sends the video signal to a receiver. The receiver connects to your recording or viewing device. How far can a wireless hidden camera transmit? – Standard wireless hidden “Surveillance Cameras” can transmit up to 1000 feet and high-powered wireless hidden cameras can transmit up to 2000 feet.
How many wireless cameras can you have in one location?
dot You can have up to four wireless cameras in one location. You can view all cameras at once using four receivers or you can use one receiver and switch to each camera. You will only be able to view one camera at a time if you only use one receiver. If you want to install multiple wireless cameras in one location it’s best to order them at the same time so that we can put them on different channels.
Spoiler title
dot Cordless phones that operate on the 2.4 GHz frequency will cause interference with 2.4 GHz cameras. Interference should be minimal and usually occurs if the phone is between the camera and receiver.

What is a 2.4 GHz wireless frequency?
dot A frequency is used to transmit a signal or data like video. 2.4GHz is the specific wireless frequency that our transmitters use to send video signal to a receiver. All of our wireless cameras operate on the 2.4 GHz frequency. Range varies from 200′ to 700′ depending on environmental conditions. These units are FCC approved.

Are the transmitters FCC approved?
dot The transmitters used in l of our wireless systems are FCC and Industry Canada Certified.
What is CCD?
dot CCD is used in professional cameras because of ital is high resolution quality and it’s ability to record in low-light situations. CCD is basically a small silicon chip that receives light and turns it into voltage variations which makes up an image. It’s usually measured in inches with 1/3″ CCD being the standard. They are higher priced but are great for cameras that may require vision in near darkness. Surveillance cameras make for great visual recording so that if necessary, you can take corrective action to prevent unscrupulous events from occurring again.
What is Quad?
dot A Quad splits your monitor into 4 sections allowing you to view 4 cameras at once.
Will a Quad allow four cameras to record at the same time?
dot Yes you can record all four cameras at the same time. You also can record using a switching monitor, which will record the camera that is showing at that moment.
Do receivers work through walls up to two feet thick?
dot Yes as long as there isn’t excessive amount of metal in the wall.
Do the plug and play connections require extra wire to run the signal back to the VCR or TV?
dot Yes, you need to buy the length of cable you need we offer the CA-25, CA-50 and the CA-100.
What is the difference between a DVR and a VCR?
dot A Digital Video Recorder (DVR) system records high resolution digital images to a hard disk drive (HDD) and eliminates the requirement of maintaining VHS tapes. Since the video images are stored digitally, the image quality will not degrade overtime, as would a VHS tape when recorded over multiple times. The time-saving search capabilities of a DVR will enable the user to locate the desired video clips via user defined parameters (camera, time, date, etc.) versus the fast forward and rewind functions of a VCR. A DVR can be accessed remotely from anywhere in the world using the Internet.
How many hours will a DVR record?
dot The amount of time a DVR will record for is based on the size of the DVRs hard drive, the number of cameras recording and the number of frames per second it is recording at. One camera recording in Real Time uses 1 GB per day. So a 16 camera system will use 16 GB in one day.
Do I need a VCR from you or can I use my own VCR?
dot You can use your own VCR for recording. However, the VCR will have to be recording all the time. Most VCRs can only record for about 10 hours but we have special VCRs that can record up to 1280 hours.
What is a DVR card?
dot DVR Cards enable the user to convert their computer into a Digital Video Recorder. The DVR Card(s) is typically installed in an available PCI slot of a computer. DVR cards are bundled with video surveillance software which allows the user to record and display multiple cameras simultaneously from the camera site or a remote location.
What is a Plug and Play connection camera?
dot It is an RCA Video plug and a power plug on the camera for easy connection to VCR or TV. This is done by running the RCA (Aux) line into the VIDEO IN of the VCR or TV. The TV or VCR must be set on the correct channel to view the VIDEO IN picture.
How many cameras can I hook up to one TV?
dot You can hook up as many cameras as your TV has inputs. Most TVs have 2 inputs but when using a quad you can hook up four cameras.
Do I need a VCR to record or will the cameras record?
dot You must have a VCR or DVR if you want to record.
How long will the camera last with a 9-volt battery?
dot The Cyber Eye and BD-127 will last 5 hours.
Between what temperatures is it safe for cameras to operate in?
dot It is safe for B/W cameras to operate between -23°C to + 50°C or -10ºF to +122ºF It is safe for color cameras to operate between -23º C to +40ºC or -10ºF to +104ºF. It is safe to store cameras between -30ºC to +70ºC or -22ºF to +158ºF.
What is the operating voltage of a camera?
dot Our cameras range from 9 volts (CMOS) to 12volts, and also 24 volt professional models. The voltage for the surveillance cameras range from, 9 volts to 12 volts, and for the professional model surveillance cameras, 24 volts.
What is a varifocal lens?
dot A varifocal lens is one where the focal length of the lens can be varied. This is a fancy way of saying it is a zoom lens. Most varifocal lenses have, and in almost all circumstances should have, an auto iris feature. What is a fixed lens? – A fixed focal length lens cannot zoom. The focus is fixed. A fixed focal length lens usually allows more light to pass through the lens at a given focal length than a varifocal, or zoom lens. This can be important in low light situations.

How to Pick a Hidden Camera

dot What is the main goal of this hidden camera?

  • Catch a thief in an office or store
  • Ensure the children are taken care of by the Nanny
  • Find out if a spouse is cheating

dot Where will the camera be placed?

  • Would you be able to run a video wire from the camera to a recorder?
  • Can you get power to the camera? They all need power to run.
  • What type of object would fit into the room and not arouse suspicion?
  • Will the camera be indoors or outdoors?
  • What's the lighting situation? black & white cameras are better for low light.

Consideration for all situations.

dot Do you want to record video to view at a later time?

  • How long will you need to record?
  • How much activity is there in the room? A home has lower traffic than a store.
  • Do you need scheduled recording? motion activated? or both?

dot Do you want a wireless camera?

  • Do you have a cordless phone or wireless internet that might interfere with a wireless signal?
  • Do you want to view the camera feed live from another room?
  • Are you sure you can not run a wire to view or use a built in recorder to avoid problems with wireless transmission.

dot What are my options?

  1. Wired - a camera connected by a video cable to a recording device
  2. Wireless - a camera with a built in transmitter that will send the video wirelessly to a near by (hidden) receiver connected by a short wire to a video recorder or TV for live monitoring
  3. Stealth Cam - A Camera with a built in DVR that records video direct to a Secure Digital Memory card.

dot Why can't I record hidden Audio?

  • Because it is against federal law and you may go to jail if you covertly record audio.

Air TASER Frequently Asked Questions

NEW Electro-Muscular Disruption (EMD) Technology:
There are two categories of energy self defense products: Stun self defense products and EMD self defense products.

Stun Weapons:

Traditional stun technology self defense products operate in a 7-14 Watt range and interfere with the communication signals within the nervous system of the target. These stun systems primarily affect the sensory nervous system. Like static on the communication lines between the brain and the body, stun systems interfere with the human command and control systems.

However, a small percentage of people with a very high tolerance for electrical stimulation can fight through the effect of these 7-14 Watt systems. The AIR TASER 34000 series is a stun personal protection device using the same settings used by law enforcement for over 20 years.

Non-lethal solutions for protecting yourself from harm.

EMD Weapons:

EMD self defense products use a more powerful 18 to 26 Watt electrical signal to completely override the central nervous system and directly control the skeletal muscles. This EMD effect causes an uncontrollable contraction of the muscle tissue, allowing the M-Series to physically debilitate a target regardless of pain tolerance or mental focus.

The ADVANCED TASER EMD systems are EMD self defense products -- specifically designed to stop even the most elite, aggressive, focused combatants. Rather than simply interfering with communication between the brain and muscles, the ADVANCED TASER EMD systems directly tell the muscles what to do: contract until the target is in the fetal position on the ground. The ADVANCED TASER provides for maximum safety for both the officer and the subject by bringing dangerous situation quickly under control before force escalates to lethal levels.

How does an advanced TASER work?
dot Upon firing, compressed nitrogen projects two ADVANCED TASER probes 15 feet at a speed of 135 feet per second. An electrical signal transmits throughout the region where the probes make contact with the body or clothing. The result is an instant loss of the attacker’s intramuscular control and any ability to perform coordinated action. ADVANCED TASER uses an automatic timing mechanism to apply the electric charge. The ADVANCED TASER releases an electric current in a preset time sequence (an initial seven seconds followed by several 1.8 second breaks for a total time of about 30 seconds in each cycle). The cycle ensures that the nervous system of the target does not recover instantly to allow him to remove the probes. The follow-on bursts disrupt the process of re-equilibration of the nervous system. While the target is disabled, the user can place the device on the ground and escape.

The fact that the Advanced TASER’s are non-injurious self defense self defense products, shows that the intent is to temporary stop an attacker’s advancement, not fatally wound, or harm them.

How can the advanced TASER be so effective, yet non-injurious?
dot The ADVANCED TASER does not depend upon impact or body penetration to achieve its effect. Its pulsating electrical output interferes with communication between the brain and the muscular system, resulting in loss of control. However the ADVANCED TASER is non-destructive to nerves, muscles and other body elements. It simply affects them in their natural mode. More importantly, no deaths have ever been directly attributed to the TASER.

What has testing revealed regarding the Advanced TASER?
dot Anesthesiologist and specialist in medical electronics, Dr. Frank Summers, MD of St. Joseph’s Hospital, Orange, California, directed tests of volunteers at St. Joseph’s in 1971 and 1974. Dr. Summers stated, “..We undertook this [volunteer test] in the operating rooms at St. Joseph’s Hospital. We had an assembly of cardiovascular surgeons, cardiologists..we had a real [TASER]. We tested extensively and made movies. The tests were impressive. We monitored all parameters of physiology, including electrocardiographs. The tests did not produce any lethal effects and we found that the background work that had been done did indeed pan out in practice.”

Does the Taser affect the heart or a cardiac pacemaker?
dot The ADVANCED TASER’S output is well below the level established as “safe” by the federal government in approving such devices as the electrified cattle fence. In a medical study of the Model XR 50000 electronic stun device, Dr. Robert Stratbucker of the University of Nebraska Medical Center confirmed that the T-Wave does not interrupt the heartbeat or damage a pacemaker. Any modern pacemaker is designed to withstand electrical defibrillator pulses that are hundred of times stronger than the ADVANCED TASER’s output. The ADVANCED TASER current of 0.3 joules is well below the 10-15 joule threshold above which cardiac ventricular fibrillation can occur.

Isn't high voltage lethal?
dot TASERS and stun devices, are meant to incapacitate an attacker. High voltage, in itself, is not dangerous. One can receive a 25,000-volt shock of static electricity from a doorknob on a dry day without harm. The physiological effect electrical shock is determined by: the current, its duration, and the power source that produces the shock. The typical household current of 110 volts is dangerous because it can pump many amperes of current through the body indefinitely. By contrast, the ADVANCED TASER power supply consists of an alkaline 9-Volt battery that is capable of supplying less than three watts of electrical power for a few minutes.

Will the TASER cause electrocution?
dot No. The output is metered by the electronics and the electrical energy in each pulse is always the same, regardless of the target condition. The electrical output will not be transferred from one person to another even if the touch. ADVANCED TASER, Inc.’s president has been stunned by an ADVANCED TASER while standing in water to emphasize this point.

What are the aftereffects?
dot A person hit with an ADVANCED TASER will feel dazed for several minutes. The pulsating electrical output causes involuntary muscle contractions and a resulting sense of vertigo. It can momentarily stun or render an attacker unconscious. Yet, the ADVANCED TASER’s low electrical amperage and short duration of pulsating current, ensures a non lethal charge. Stun devices and ADVANCED TASERs are known to defuse potentially deadly outcomes. Moreover, it does not cause permanent damage or long-term aftereffects to muscles, nerves or other body functions. A January 1987 Annals of Emergency Medicine study reported TASER technology leaves no long term injuries compared with 50% long term injuries for device shot injuries.

Must the probes penetrate the body to be effective?
dot No. The electrical current will “jump” up to two inches as long as both probes are attached to clothing or skin. At most, only the 3/8-inch needlepoint will penetrate the skin. They have less energy that a spring propelled BB.

What if the probes miss?
dot The ADVANCED TASER can be used in a touch-stun mode. The user is thus provided with a final backup if the proves to miss the target. Should the user miss or engage a second attacker, he can touch the unit directly to the target, and it will work like a powerful touch-stun device?

What is the best-shot at maximum range?
dot As long as the spread of the probes is at least six inches, the ADVANCED TASER will be extremely effective. To ensure that the spread is greater than six inches, the ADVANCED TASER should be fired at a target several feet away. The optimum shot is from seven to ten feet away from the target to achieve maximum effect. At seven to ten feet away-the spread of the probes will be approximately 16 inches, ensuring that the target receives the most efficient T – Wave flow.

Does temperature have a detrimental effect on the Advanced TASER?
dot No. The ADVANCED TASER utilizes compressed nitrogen (an inert gas). The ADVANCED TASER compressed air capsules have successfully held their charges at temperatures of minus 20 degrees F and up to 160 degrees F. Moreover, altitude will not adversely effect the firing of an ADVANCED TASER. In addition, the temperature will not effect the T-Wave. However, as with any product containing poly-carbonates and other thermoplastics, the ADVANCED TASER and air Cartridges should never be left in direct sunlight. The TASER and stun device are self defense electronic control devices. It has almost 100% effectiveness rating. It combines the injury reducing benefits of traditional stun technology with a quantum leap in stopping power via new Electro-Muscular Disruption (EMD) technology. In police studies, the TASER has a higher instant incapacitation rate than a 9mm hand device. The TASER uses a replaceable cartridge, containing compressed nitrogen, to deploy two small probes that are attached to the TASER by insulated conductive wires with a maximum length of 15 feet. 50,000 volts travels over the wires and over-rides the central nervous system providing incredible take down power. The energy can penetrate up to two cumulative inches of clothing. SAFETY — The TASER can stop a threat up to 15 feet away, allowing you a safe distance to protect yourself and your family from an attacker. If a close quarter defense is warranted, the TASER doubles as a contact stun device to repel someone as a powerful and unexpected backup capability. TASER cartridges also have a unique serial number and are equipped with an anti-Felon Identification system, which discharges 20-30 serialized paper tags when deployed. Law enforcement can later retrieve this confetti from the scene and contact TASER International to get the name of the owner of the TASER device, allowing police to track any potential misuse. LIFETIME REPLACEMENT GUARANTEE

TASER and stun devices are self defense electronic control devices.

Introducing the TASER C2

The TASER C2 is TASER's newest product designed for personal protection. Utilizing the same technology as their proven law enforcement models, the C2 has incredible take down power.

Are TASER electronic control devices considered firearms?
dot No. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms has stated that TASER ECDs are non-firearms in 1998 and in 1994.
What is a TASER?
dot A TASER C2 is a personal safety electronic control device that can stop threats up to 15 feet away. It works by launching out two probes up to 15 feet from a disposable TASER cartridge. The probes deliver a scientifically designed electric signal that makes muscles lock up, therefore temporarily incapacitating an attacker for 30 seconds so that you can get to safety and call 911.
Is a TASER a personal protection device?
dot No. In fact, TASER devices have been proven statistically to dramatically reduce injury rates to suspects and police officers as well as to increase personal safety and community security compared to any other use of force option. However, TASER devices are not risk free and may cause injuries, primarily from falls or physical exertions, so their use should be taken seriously.
Are TASER's more dangerous to people with pacemakers?
dot Both the human and pacemakers are able to withstand the power of a defibrillator that emits around 300 joules (“joules”) of energy. A TASER emits less than one joule of energy. TASER devices have been used over one million times by either TASER International or law enforcement without causing a single death.
Is the TASER C2 the same model that law enforcement uses?
dot No, law enforcement agencies use the TASER X26 and the ADVANCED TASER M26 that are only available to law enforcement. Those units are capable of recording data useful to officers in court. The TASER C2 is a consumer model that utilizes the same technology and stopping power in a smaller size.
Please describe the required activation background check process/ How do you prevent selling TASER'S to criminals?
dot The TASER C2 is shipped out inactive and you will need to pass an identification verification a felony background check to get the activation code. TASER International has taken on the task of screening the purchasers to make sure convicted felons can’t activate a TASER C2. You can do this over the Internet or if you don’t have a computer, you can do it over the phone and a trained operator will give you the code that is unique to your TASER C2 to unlock it. Once the TASER C2 is unlocked, you will never need to do it again but there is a $9.95 activation fee that is food for up to ten units.
What are AFID Tags?
dot AFID stands for Anti-Felon Identification Tags. Each cartridge contains 20-30 of small, confetti-like tags that have the serial number of the TASER cartridge imprinted on them. If a TASER device is misused, the police will find these tags and can use them to identify the owner of the TASER device that was used.
Is it legal to carry a TASER?
dot Yes, but there are some limitations. You cannot carry any TASER device on an airplane (it must be in your checked in luggage) or take them into public buildings like courtrooms or in some schools. If you are over the age of 18, they can be legally possessed in 43 states. You currently cannot possess a TASER device in DC, HI, MA, MI, NJ, NY, RI and WI, as well as a few cities like Annapolis, Baltimore, Chicago, and Philadelphia. Some restrictions apply to CT and IL. Please check your local laws before purchasing or carrying any type of electronic control device.
Are there any restrictions to fly or travel internationally with TASER?
dot When traveling by air, TASER devices need to be placed in your checked bags and not carried on the plane. Also, do not try to take it out of the country, please leave it at home if you are traveling abroad. Please check with your airline or other carrier for any new guidelines in advance of traveling.
Is using a TASER similar to shooting a device?
dot Not exactly. There isn’t a kick or recoil with a TASER device but you will hear a loud pop like a balloon popping.
How many times can I use a cartridge?
dot The TASER C2 comes with one TASER cartridge. As each TASER cartridge can only be used once, you may want to consider purchasing additional cartridges.
How does the TASER shoot out the probes?
dot The TASER cartridge uses compressed and inert nitrogen to launch out the probes. The TASER cartridge is a one-time use system and delivers the probes and AFID tags at approximately 100 MPH.
What if I miss my target?
dot The end of the TASER C2 can also act as a powerful contact stun device which is a powerful backup capability.
Does it work on animals?
dot Law enforcement officers have successfully incapacitated vicious animals with various TASER systems. The TASER C2 was designed for human use which is why the probes are deployed vertically. Most animals bodies are horizontal to the ground meaning you will have to adjust the way you hold the device in order to get both probes to hit your target.
What is the Lifetime Replacement Guarantee?
dot In the event you use the TASER C2 to defend yourself you can set the device down and run to safety. If the TASER C2 is stolen during your use of it for self defense, file a police report and send a copy to TASER International for a free replacement unit. Your life is worth more than the cost of a TASER C2.
Is there a money-back guarantee?
dot The TASER C2 comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee less shipping and handling on unactivated units. Once you’ve activated and registered the TASER C2, we are unable to issue a refund.
Is there a warranty?
dot Every TASER C2 comes with a 90-day warranty that ensures that the TASER C2 is free of defects in workmanship or materials for 90 days from the point of attempted activation. You may also purchase a one or three year “No Questions Asked” warranty during the activation process that guarantees TASER International will repair or replace any TASER C2 that fails to function for any reason for the length of the warranty.

Frequently Asked Questions About Stun Guns

What is a Stun Gun?
dot A stun device is an electrical self defense device that can stop an attacker with its high voltage electrical current. When a person is touched by the prongs on the device, the attacker is quickly immobilized due to intense pain and loss of muscle control. As athletes in training can attest to, when high levels of lactic acid are injected into the muscles, cramps far beyond what an athlete can encounter, is what an attacker will experience. A much higher degree of the body is affected when electrical current from stun device contacts the body. It lasts much longer than what an athlete will be subjected to.

A stun device is effective at stopping an attacker and yet is non lethal in nature. A low level of amperage within the stun device is why no serious or permanent injury occurs to a “would-be” attacker. Stun devices range in voltage from 100,000 to 900,000 volts of electricity.

How does the difference in Voltage affect our choice in what voltage of stun device to purchase?
dot The voltage level correlates with the power of the shocking capacity and the quicker the offender is incapacitated. The mitigating factor you need to be aware of is that, a 100,000 volt shock requires a contact equivalency time of touching the person with the devices prongs, for 8 – 10 seconds to stop them. This length of contact time between the person in possession off the stun device and the time needed to be contacting the offender with the stun device, could make the situation unfavorable for the person in possession of the stun device.

In retrospect, a 800 or 900,000 volt device will shorten the length of contact time between the attacked and the offender to a “shock-time” of about one-half second to 1 second. A 1/2 second to 1 second duration of contact time between the two subjects is time well spent in achieving your goal of temporally immobilizing the offender, thus giving you time to vacate the area.

The purchase of the highest voltage stun device affordable to you, could serve you better should the time arise when you need this type of stopping assistance.

Is the effects from at stun device different for a person who is inebriated then that of a person who is not inebriated?
dot A stun device causes a great deal of pain to either type individual, because the voltage from the stun device triggers an extremely high release of lactic acid directly into the muscles. Severe like cramping occurs in many, many areas of the body, and lasts much longer in the body.

The ultimate goal is to put the offender down on the ground giving the other individual to depart from the scene. When a stun device is properly used, whether being “under the influence” is not a factor.

Spoiler title
dot The person firing the stun device is Not shocked even if the offender should be touching the operator at the time the device is discharged. Too little amperage is involved with a stun device. Please read about “How use a stun device?”
Is a stun device effective through clothing?
dot Yes. Stun Guns are designed to work effectively 100% of the time through typical clothing. However, an exception would be if the clothing was a rubber, for example, a rubber rain jacket or other such similar article.
Are stun devices effective against a canine or other species?
dot Yes, aggressive animals such as dogs, coyotes and other similar size animals, but not bears. A good voltage range of protective equipment would be a 500,000 or above volt stun baton. Because of the fact that dogs and other such size animals have a much higher pain threshold than humans, be prepared to have to contact these unruly animals more than once and longer period of time. The popping sound that stun devices produce, appears to disturb the acute hearing of dogs. It is recommended that upon being approached by an aggressive dog, trigger the stun device without making contact first, to see how the animal reacts. A fleeing animal needs no further attention, but be prepared should you need to use your stun device.
Is a Stun Gun a lethal personal protection device?
dot When a stun device used in the proper manner, it is designed to create chemical reactions by accelerating a rapid dumping of lactic acid into the muscles due impart to the physical reaction from the voltage. A stun device does not electrocute a person. Extreme cramping of the muscles can last from 3 minutes to an hour. If a stun device is improperly used and for purposes for which it was not intended, then there has been reports of a stun device involved deaths.

Stun Guns must be in contact with the target as nothing is fired out of the device. The upper hip, below the rib cage or the upper shoulders are areas that contain nerve center within the body. If stun device contacts a leg or arm, instead of areas more advantageous to affecting the whole body, it might just stun that area. For a more thorough contact, hold the stun device against the offender as long as is necessary to stop their encroachment upon you, allowing you to vacate the scene. (1-5 seconds depending on the voltage of the stun device)

Just like any other device, follow the directions explicitly when operating a stun device. This also includes properly test firing the equipment and having it readily available before approaching areas where its use might be required.

Frequently Asked Questions About Pepper Spray

The first known development of aerosol defensive sprays first originated in 1969 with a company named Aerko International Corporation (A.I.C.). The original goal was to produce an aerosol spray that would be packaged into the housing of a small flashlight. The chemical ingredient of choice was, Oleoresin Capsicum (OC). OC, is a red pepper oil that's main purpose is to cause coughing, a burning sensation of the skin, and watering in the eyes. The purpose for its development was to ward off potential dog attacks or person to person aggression. Dogs presumably are less affected by traditional tear gas.

Is Pepper Spray legal?
dot In most states pepper spray is legal to possess and carry. You should check with your local law enforcement office or your states Attorney Generals office for any regulations your state may have. There are states where pepper spray is legal but there may be size, age or OC concentration restrictions. You should check on these restrictions as well.

There are six states that have written restrictions regarding the purchase of traditional pepper sprays. The forty eight continuous states allow shipping of (animal repellents-bear sprays and dog spray) to their states. Please feel free to refer to our Legal Restrictions for more information of pepper spray restrictions.

Is there anyplace where I cannot carry my pepper spray?
dot Yes. You cannot carry pepper spray on board commercial aircraft. This is a Federal crime that can carry up to a $25,000 dollar fine. It is OK to carry pepper spray in your checked baggage although it is highly advisable that you notify the ticketing agent when you check your baggage. Also since 9/11/01 you may have issues when carrying pepper spray into secured locations such as a Federal buildings, State buildings or anyplace where you pass through a security checkpoint. Although there are no laws that we are aware of you should use your common sense here.
How does pepper spray work?
Pepper spray’s active ingredient is OC or oleo resin capsicum. The OC is derived from Cayenne peppers these are some of the hottest peppers in the world. Unlike MACE or tear gas, which are irritants,pepper spray OC is an inflammatory agent. Contact with mucous membranes (eyes, nose, throat and lungs) causes immediate dilation of the capillaries. This can result in temporary blindness and instant inflammation of the breathing tube tissues and systematically cuts of all but life support breathing. OC also will create an intense burning sensation on the surface of the skin. However, OC will cause no lasting after effects. The effects last from 15 to 60 minutes. Because OC is an inflammatory agent and not an irritant it is effective on those who feel no pain such as psychotics and those under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
When should I use my pepper spray?
dot Although no defense item is 100% effective in every situation you will need to assess the situation as it happens. You should ONLY use pepper spray if you are threatened or your life is in danger. please note that it IS a crime to use pepper spray to commit malicious acts.
How do I use my pepper spray?
dot If you have to use your pepper spray make sure you have distance between you and the threat if at all possible. Aim the spray at the eyes and facial region of the threat then release a 1 to 2 second burst of spray. After you have done this MOVE out of the way but keep your eyes on the threat. Pepper spray can take a couple of moments to cause a reaction and by watching the reactions of the threat you will be able to determine if you will require another shot of pepper spray. Boxers have a saying “Stick and Move” well the same applies here. Just remember “Spray and Move”, “Spray and Move”. Once the threat is eliminated seek help and call the police. You might wish to read the “Tactical Use of Defense Spray” Manual. It is loaded with useful tips on using defense sprays.
What is pepper spray made of?
dot Pepper spray is a derivative of Cayenne pepper. The oils are extracted from the pepper using a high-pressure process. This process leaves you with the active ingredient in pepper spray known as OC or Oleo Resin Capsicum. The pure pepper extract is then diluted with an inert ingredient that reduces the SHU or Scoville Heat Unit to get it down to a use able SHU for pepper spray. SHU is a unit of measurement that determines how hot something is the rating goes from 1 million SHU up to 5 million SHU. 1 million SHU is detectable on the palette in concentrations as little as 1 part per million or 1 drop of OC in 1 million drops of water. All of our sprays are 2 million SHU and in much higher concentrations than 1 part per million.
Will my pepper spray expire?
dot Yes. That is why we print an expiration date on every can of pepper spray. Usually this expiration date is 3 to 4 years from the date of purchase. Although the spray life is indefinite it does start to lose potency over time. Any use of the spray beyond the expiration date is HIGHLY inadvisable. We strongly advise you to replace your pepper spray every year! That way you are always assured of the potency of the spray.
How can I be assured my pepper spray will work when I need it?
dot You should get in the habit of testing your defense spray every 90 days. To do this first go outside and determine which direction the wind is blowing. Remember to always stand upwind from the direction you are spraying. Depress the firing mechanism for ½ second. This test should be performed upon purchase and every 90 days after that. Be aware that every time you test your spray you reduce the contents of the canister. If you are using a key chain model and you test regularly you will need to replace the unit every 9 to 12 months if you follow the recommended testing procedure above. See the reference chart on the back of the packaging for additional information.

Pepper Spray Formula Composition

The chemical composition of defensive sprays includes: CN, CS, and OC. These chemicals are the bases for many of the defensive sprays available on the market today.

  • CS (Orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile)
  • CN (Alphachloroacetaphenone)
  • OC (Oleoresin Capsicum)

Choice of Product:
Effectiveness issues with this chemical "stopped" any further development for the next twenty five years, by Aerko. In 1994, interest in developing a self defense spray was renewed. Aerko International was again asked to redesign a product which would now include the chemical agents of: Chloracetophenone (CN) and Orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile (CS). CN, "chloacetophenone," is classified as a "lachrymator" which attacks the tear ducts (lacrimal duct) causing the eyes to water and have a burning sensation.

CS is an irritant that causes tearing, severe burning of the eyes, stimulation of the nerve endings, advanced secretions of the mucous membranes, and the sensation for restricted breathing. Consistent military testing by both the United States and Great Britain indicated that it took less CS exposure than the amount of CN to achieve the same effect. It was concluded that CS is a safer irritant than CN, because it took a far less amounts of CN to reach a potential lethal level than did CS.

CS and CN, alone are not as effective as when they are enjoined with OC. The three chemicals compositions working in unison together will act like-a-rock embankment between the perpetrator and the defender. Pepper Spray, which equates to the chemical "OC", has the effect on so-called "hard-liners" of hitting the proverbial wall, when sprayed full face with OC pepper spray. It stops them cold in their tracks, no questions asked. A well-placed (full-faced) blast of OC pepper spray, they will stop what they are doing. These individuals lose their ability for concentration. The so-called "hard liners" alluded to as impervious to the effects of CS and CN, are not resistant to the affects of OC red pepper. This includes inebriated individuals, on drugs, or psychotic. The primary aspect of interest was that the product needed to be effective. There are many different chemical compositions used in the development of Pepper Sprays.

Bonus Quick Facts:

  • One finalizing conclusion was reached that a stream pattern was far more likely to achieve its goal than a mist pattern application of the chemical upon the intended target.
  • The surface area of the target needs to be the face of the perpetrator to be fully effective. Quick penetration of the chemical upon the breathing apparatus of the perpetrator is necessary to achieve the maximum result of incapacitating the person.
  • A third dimension of this product is that an invisible skin coloring dyes the skin.
  • UV Dyes marks the perpetrator and may aid in identification once apprehended.
  • The UV Dyes only become visible under ultra violet lamps for up to 48 hours.
  • In order to maintain constant pressure within the aerosol can, a liquefied agent had to be into the canister. The liquefied propellant boils to maintain constant pressure in the canister. This chemical action takes place after every use. A ballistic forceful-like characteristic reaction result.

Size and Capacity:

The size of the canister ranges from 1/2 ounce canisters for personal usage up to 9 ounce canisters for the bear pepper spray category. Wildfire 18% Pepper Spray offers 1 pound canisters of pepper spray. There is key chain sized defensive sprays or larger that can be easily carried on a belt or in a purse. Even small canisters of spray have enough chemical agents in them to be effective if and when a direct application to the perpetrator's face is administered. Spray Pattern: Mists are known to be too negatively affected by the shift in wind current. Trying to deliver an incapacitating amount of material to the surface area of the advancing perpetrator was aggravated, by the concern to avoid the change of "blow back" upon the chemical administrator. OC pepper is most effective when the spray hits the perpetrator squarely in the eyes and nose, so they haven't any choice about inhaling its properties. Pepper Spray Stream is most effective when the perpetrator is sprayed directly in the eyes and nose. Pepper Spray Stream takes longer to affect the perpetrator. Pepper Spray Stream does have a good range of effectiveness.

Pepper spray mists have a shorter range of effectiveness than the pepper spray stream. Wind currents have a negative accuracy ratio in comparison to the pepper spray stream. Pepper spray mist is inhaled instantly upon direct exposure to the nose and or mouth than a pepper spray stream.

A 6-8 foot range is plenty since that is where most personal assaults will take place. Most defensive sprays are also classified by number of one second bursts. A good 1-2 second burst will disable almost any assailant.

CS and CN alone, are not as effective as when they are enjoined with OC pepper. The three chemical compositions work in unison, and will act like a rock embankment between you and the perpetrator.  The two defining factors that need to be understood are, range of distance of the product effectiveness, and the number of one second bursts canisters contain.

Because your car keys are not always with you,
have a second canister of spray on your person at all times,
for a backup.

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