About Surveillance Cameras
Here are questions and answers about the use and definition of many of the elements regarding surveillance cameras. These surveillance cameras are so inconspicuously disguised that they are referred to as Hidden Cameras.
AGC - Automatic Gain Control is an electronic system found in many types of devices. Its purpose is to control the gain of a system in order to maintain adequate performance over a range of input signal levels. Or An electronic circuit that tries to keep the video signal at a constant level (1volt peak-peak). Useful on cameras working at low light levels.
Keep an eye on what's important.
AI - Auto Iris is an electronic circuit that acts as an iris on CCD cameras by electronically shuttering the CCD sensor. Or An automatic method of varying the size of a lens opening in response to changes in scene illumination.
AWB - Auto White Balance is an electronic process used in video cameras to retain true colors. It is performed electronically on the basis of a white object in the picture.
CCD - Charged Coupled Device: It is analog technology. The CCD camera has a little bit higher resolution than CMOS. The camera also functions better in low light. A CCD camera drains a little bit more power than the CMOS cameras. It uses 12v instead of 9v. CMOS camera is smaller than a CCD camera and works longer with the 9v battery.
HAD CCD - Hole Accumulation Diode is a type of CCD sensor with a layer designed to accumulate holes (in the electronic sense), thus reducing the noise level.
S to N Ratio - Signal to Noise Ratio is simply the ratio of the signal power and noise power, expressed in decibels (dB). Or the measure sure of noise on a video signal. It is represented in Decibels as the level of the video signal compared to the level of noise present on that signal. The higher the signal to noise ratio the better.
BLC - Balance Light Control is a method to compensate for bright spots in a picture. It is also important to consider whether there are bright spots in the picture such as car headlights which can make identification of the vehicle registration or model impossible. This can also be a major problem where it is necessary to identify a person who is moving from bright daylight into artificial light. This could result in the subject becoming an unidentifiable silhouette. OSD - On Screen Display is a method of displaying set-up information or instructions on to a display monitor. Resolution - Resolution measures the cameras ability to reproduce an image. The higher the resolution, the better the picture quality.
LUX - LUX is the measurement of low light needed for the camera to view and record properly.
FPS - Frames Per Second is the number of still frames (pictures) that give the illusion of motion, which appear in a single second of time.30fps is considered "Real Time". So for Real Time viewing of your cameras, you need at least 30fps for each camera.
IR - Infrared, IR LEDS are used on Day/Night cameras which allow the camera to see in the dark.
Focal Length - the distance from the surface of a lens and its focal point.
Your Questions Answered
How to Pick a Hidden Camera
What is the main goal of this hidden camera?
- Catch a thief in an office or store
- Ensure the children are taken care of by the Nanny
- Find out if a spouse is cheating
Where will the camera be placed?
- Would you be able to run a video wire from the camera to a recorder?
- Can you get power to the camera? They all need power to run.
- What type of object would fit into the room and not arouse suspicion?
- Will the camera be indoors or outdoors?
- What's the lighting situation? black & white cameras are better for low light.
Consideration for all situations.
Do you want to record video to view at a later time?
- How long will you need to record?
- How much activity is there in the room? A home has lower traffic than a store.
- Do you need scheduled recording? motion activated? or both?
Do you want a wireless camera?
- Do you have a cordless phone or wireless internet that might interfere with a wireless signal?
- Do you want to view the camera feed live from another room?
- Are you sure you can not run a wire to view or use a built in recorder to avoid problems with wireless transmission.
What are my options?
- Wired - a camera connected by a video cable to a recording device
- Wireless - a camera with a built in transmitter that will send the video wirelessly to a near by (hidden) receiver connected by a short wire to a video recorder or TV for live monitoring
- Stealth Cam - A Camera with a built in DVR that records video direct to a Secure Digital Memory card.
Why can't I record hidden Audio?
- Because it is against federal law and you may go to jail if you covertly record audio.
Air TASER Frequently Asked Questions
NEW Electro-Muscular Disruption (EMD) Technology:
There are two categories of energy self defense products: Stun self defense products and EMD self defense products.
Traditional stun technology self defense products operate in a 7-14 Watt range and interfere with the communication signals within the nervous system of the target. These stun systems primarily affect the sensory nervous system. Like static on the communication lines between the brain and the body, stun systems interfere with the human command and control systems.
However, a small percentage of people with a very high tolerance for electrical stimulation can fight through the effect of these 7-14 Watt systems. The AIR TASER 34000 series is a stun personal protection device using the same settings used by law enforcement for over 20 years.
Non-lethal solutions for protecting yourself from harm.
EMD self defense products use a more powerful 18 to 26 Watt electrical signal to completely override the central nervous system and directly control the skeletal muscles. This EMD effect causes an uncontrollable contraction of the muscle tissue, allowing the M-Series to physically debilitate a target regardless of pain tolerance or mental focus.
The ADVANCED TASER EMD systems are EMD self defense products -- specifically designed to stop even the most elite, aggressive, focused combatants. Rather than simply interfering with communication between the brain and muscles, the ADVANCED TASER EMD systems directly tell the muscles what to do: contract until the target is in the fetal position on the ground. The ADVANCED TASER provides for maximum safety for both the officer and the subject by bringing dangerous situation quickly under control before force escalates to lethal levels.
TASER and stun guns are self-defense electronic control devices.
Introducing the TASER C2
The TASER C2 is TASER's newest product designed for personal protection. Utilizing the same technology as their proven law enforcement models, the C2 has incredible take down power.
Frequently Asked Questions About Stun Guns
Stun Guns must be in contact with the target as nothing is fired out of the gun. The upper hip, below the rib cage or the upper shoulders are areas that contain nerve center within the body. If stun gun contacts a leg or arm, instead of areas more advantageous to affecting the whole body, it might just stun that area. For a more thorough contact, hold the stun gun against the offender as long as is necessary to stop their encroachment upon you, allowing you to vacate the scene. (1-5 seconds depending on the voltage of the stun gun)
Just like any other device, follow the directions explicitly when operating a stun gun. This also includes properly test firing the equipment and having it readily available before approaching areas where its use might be required.
Frequently Asked Questions About Pepper Spray
The first known development of aerosol defensive sprays first originated in 1969 with a company named Aerko International Corporation (A.I.C.). The original goal was to produce an aerosol spray that would be packaged into the housing of a small flashlight. The chemical ingredient of choice was, Oleoresin Capsicum (OC). OC, is a red pepper oil that's main purpose is to cause coughing, a burning sensation of the skin, and watering in the eyes. The purpose for its development was to ward off potential dog attacks or person to person aggression. Dogs presumably are less affected by traditional tear gas.
Pepper Spray Formula Composition
The chemical composition of defensive sprays includes: CN, CS, and OC. These chemicals are the bases for many of the defensive sprays available on the market today.
- CS (Orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile)
- CN (Alphachloroacetaphenone)
- OC (Oleoresin Capsicum)
Choice of Product:
Effectiveness issues with this chemical "stopped" any further development for the next twenty five years, by Aerko. In 1994, interest in developing a self defense spray was renewed. Aerko International was again asked to redesign a product which would now include the chemical agents of: Chloracetophenone (CN) and Orthochlorobenzalmalonitrile (CS). CN, "chloacetophenone," is classified as a "lachrymator" which attacks the tear ducts (lacrimal duct) causing the eyes to water and have a burning sensation.
CS is an irritant that causes tearing, severe burning of the eyes, stimulation of the nerve endings, advanced secretions of the mucous membranes, and the sensation for restricted breathing. Consistent military testing by both the United States and Great Britain indicated that it took less CS exposure than the amount of CN to achieve the same effect. It was concluded that CS is a safer irritant than CN, because it took a far less amounts of CN to reach a potential lethal level than did CS.
CS and CN, alone are not as effective as when they are enjoined with OC. The three chemicals compositions working in unison together will act like-a-rock embankment between the perpetrator and the defender. Pepper Spray, which equates to the chemical "OC", has the effect on so-called "hard-liners" of hitting the proverbial wall, when sprayed full face with OC pepper spray. It stops them cold in their tracks, no questions asked. A well-placed (full-faced) blast of OC pepper spray, they will stop what they are doing. These individuals lose their ability for concentration. The so-called "hard liners" alluded to as impervious to the effects of CS and CN, are not resistant to the affects of OC red pepper. This includes inebriated individuals, on drugs, or psychotic. The primary aspect of interest was that the product needed to be effective. There are many different chemical compositions used in the development of Pepper Sprays.
Bonus Quick Facts:
- One finalizing conclusion was reached that a stream pattern was far more likely to achieve its goal than a mist pattern application of the chemical upon the intended target.
- The surface area of the target needs to be the face of the perpetrator to be fully effective. Quick penetration of the chemical upon the breathing apparatus of the perpetrator is necessary to achieve the maximum result of incapacitating the person.
- A third dimension of this product is that an invisible skin coloring dyes the skin.
- UV Dyes marks the perpetrator and may aid in identification once apprehended.
- The UV Dyes only become visible under ultra violet lamps for up to 48 hours.
- In order to maintain constant pressure within the aerosol can, a liquefied agent had to be into the canister. The liquefied propellant boils to maintain constant pressure in the canister. This chemical action takes place after every use. A ballistic forceful-like characteristic reaction result.
Size and Capacity:
The size of the canister ranges from 1/2 ounce canisters for personal usage up to 9 ounce canisters for the bear pepper spray category. Wildfire 18% Pepper Spray offers 1 pound canisters of pepper spray. There is key chain sized defensive sprays or larger that can be easily carried on a belt or in a purse. Even small canisters of spray have enough chemical agents in them to be effective if and when a direct application to the perpetrator's face is administered. Spray Pattern: Mists are known to be too negatively affected by the shift in wind current. Trying to deliver an incapacitating amount of material to the surface area of the advancing perpetrator was aggravated, by the concern to avoid the change of "blow back" upon the chemical administrator. OC pepper is most effective when the spray hits the perpetrator squarely in the eyes and nose, so they haven't any choice about inhaling its properties. Pepper Spray Stream is most effective when the perpetrator is sprayed directly in the eyes and nose. Pepper Spray Stream takes longer to affect the perpetrator. Pepper Spray Stream does have a good range of effectiveness.
Pepper spray mists have a shorter range of effectiveness than the pepper spray stream. Wind currents have a negative accuracy ratio in comparison to the pepper spray stream. Pepper spray mist is inhaled instantly upon direct exposure to the nose and or mouth than a pepper spray stream.
A 6-8 foot range is plenty since that is where most personal assaults will take place. Most defensive sprays are also classified by number of one second bursts. A good 1-2 second burst will disable almost any assailant.
CS and CN alone, are not as effective as when they are enjoined with OC pepper. The three chemical compositions work in unison, and will act like a rock embankment between you and the perpetrator. The two defining factors that need to be understood are, range of distance of the product effectiveness, and the number of one second bursts canisters contain.
Because your car keys are not always with you,
have a second canister of spray on your person at all times,
for a backup.
An Overview of Our Product Categories
- ASP Batons
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- Stun Batons
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- Stun Gun Laws & Restrictions
- Pepper Spray
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- Pepper Spray Accessories
- Police Magnum Pepper Spray
- Wildfire Pepper Spray
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More PDM Self Defense Questions Answered:
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